Climate change, ecosystems and smallholder agriculture in Central America: an introduction to the special issue Artículo académico uri icon


  • Central America is one of the regions most exposed to climate change (Giorgi 2006). A narrow isthmus between the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, it is strongly affected by droughts, hurricanes and the El Niño-southern oscillation (ENSO) phenomena (CEPAL 2011). As a result, three countries in the region rank in the top 10 of the Global Climate Risk Index (Kreft and Eckstien 2013) based on the impacts of extreme weather events between 1993 and 2012.

fecha de publicación

  • 2017