Evaluation of systemic and mucosal anti-HPV16 and anti-HPV18 antibody responses from vaccinated women
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Ideal methods to monitor HPV neutralizing antibodies induced by vaccination have not been established yet. Here, we evaluated systemic and cervical antibody levels induced by HPV16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals) using a secreted alkaline phosphatase neutralization assay (SEAP-NA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Serum and cervical secretions from 50 vaccinated women were used to assess (1) overall assay reproducibility; (2) inter-assay and inter-specimen correlation; (3) correlations between month 1 and month 12 titers. Strong correlations between SEAP-NA and ELISA were observed (serum anti-HPV16/18, ρ = 0.91/0.85; cervix anti-HPV16/18, ρ = 0.84/0.89). Systemic and cervical antibody measures also correlated well (ρ range: 0.64–0.75); except at mid-cycle (ρ range: 0.28–0.65). Correlations between antibody levels at 1 and 12 months following the start of vaccination were poor (ρ range: 0.16–0.38). In conclusion, HPV16/18 VLP-based ELISA is a reliable and valid method to monitor anti-HPV16/18 neutralizing potential for the first year following vaccination; however, additional studies will be required to better define the effects of the time on cycle and patterns of antibody response over time following vaccination.
The Papuan black snake (Pseudechis papuanus Serpentes: Elapidae) is endemic to Papua New Guinea, Indonesian Papua and Australia's Torres Strait Islands. We have investigated the biological activity and proteomic composition of its venom. The P. papuanus venom proteome is dominated by a variety (n ≥ 18) of PLA2s, which together account for ~ 90% of the venom proteins, and a set of low relative abundance proteins, including a short-neurotoxic 3FTx (3.1%), 3–4 PIII-SVMPs (2.8%), 3 cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISP; 2.3%) 1–3 l-amino acid oxidase (LAAO) molecules (1.6%). Probing of a P. papuanus cDNA library with specific primers resulted in the elucidation of the full-length nucleotide sequences of six new toxins, including vespryn and NGF not found in the venom proteome, and a calglandulin protein involved in toxin expression with the venom glands. Intravenous injection of P. papuanus venom in mice induced lethality, intravascular haemolysis, pulmonary congestion and oedema, and anticoagulation after intravenous injection, and these effects are mainly due to the action of PLA2s. This study also evaluated the in vivo preclinical efficacy of Australian black snake and polyvalent Seqirus antivenoms. These antivenoms were effective in neutralising the lethal, PLA2 and anticoagulant activities of P. papuanus venom in mice. On the other hand, all of the Seqirus antivenoms tested using an antivenomic approach exhibited strong immunorecognition of all the venom components. These preclinical results suggest that Australian Seqirus 1 antivenoms may provide paraspecific protection against P. papuanus venom in humans.